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Joss Research Institute Web Report #16B: Continuing Look into Hollow-Cathode Helium-Metal Laser Designs for the DIYer, part 1

TJIIRRS Number 16B:

Further Examination of Possible Hollow-Cathode
Laser Designs for the Do-It-Yourselfer
Part 1: Quadrupoles


Preliminaries

(01 January, 2011, ff)

Note: A dipole has 2 parts, and it has opposite charges or poles across from each other:

 + - 

A quadrupole has 4 parts, and it has like charges (or poles) across from each other:

 +  - -  + 

This page describes the process of constructing and debugging several hollow-cathode lasers that are operated as quadrupoles. The first is made of copper tubing, and uses sputtered copper vapor in a helium buffer, probably with a small amount of argon added to it to enhance the sputtering. The second is built of stainless-steel tubing; it will use a mixture of helium and iodine or helium and argon as its active medium, and will not require sputtered metal. If I get really ambitious there may be a third and fourth, formalized versions of the first two, possibly with different insulators.

My effort is to make these lasers relatively easy to construct and operate, and to avoid parts that are expensive, difficult to obtain, or require much machining.

Side note: it became clear to me, in the course of working with

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